• Selection of Plant Species for Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal (As and Cd) Contaminated Soil using Hydroponic Culture
  • Bumjun Kim1·Bumhan Bae2*·Younghun Kim3

  • 1Beautiful Environment Construction, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13207, Korea
    2Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
    3Department of Environmental Engineering, Andong University, Andong 36729, Korea

  • 수경재배에 의한 중금속 (As 및 Cd) 오염토양의 식물상 복원공법 적용 식물종 선별
  • 김범준1·배범한2*·김영훈3

  • 1아름다운환경건설
    2가천대학교 토목환경공학과
    3안동대학교 환경공학과

  • This article is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Phytoremediation presents a low-carbon and eco-friendly solution for heavy metal-contaminated soils, which pose great health and environmental risks to humans and ecosystems. A hydroponic culture was used to quantitatively assess the phytoremediation potential of plant species to remediate As or Cd-contaminated soil in field application. This study examined the growth, uptake, and distribution of Cd in the roots and shoots of Phalaris arundinacea and Brassica juncea in hydroponic conditions with Cd concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 mg/L for 10 days. Additionally, Aster koraiensis and Pteris multifida were cultivated in hydroponic conditions containing As concentrations ranging from 0 to 40 mg/L for 10 days. The concentrations of Cd in the above-ground part and root tissues of P. arundinacea and B. juncea reached a maximum of 147.7 and 1926.7 mg/kg-D.W.(Dry Weight), and 351.6 and 11305.5 mg/kg-D.W., respectively. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for P. arundinacea and B. juncea were 68.9 and 122.3, respectively. Both species exhibited a translocation factor (TF) of less than 0.1, indicating their eligibility for phytostabilization. Aster koraiensis exhibited significant As accumulation of 155.1 and 1306.7 mg/kg D.W. in the above-ground part and root, respectively. However, this accumulation resulted with substantial weight loss and the manifestation of toxic symptoms. P. multifida exhibited higher accumulation of As (345.1 mg/kg-D.W.) in the fronds than in the roots (255.4 mg/kg-D.W.), corresponding to BCF values of 18.6 and 7.6, respectively, and a TF greater than 1.2. A TF value greater than 1.0 indicates that P. multifida is a viable option for phytoextraction.

Keywords: Arsenic, BCF, Cadmium, Heavy metal, Hydroponics, Phytoremediation, TF

This Article

  • 2024; 29(1): 28-38

    Published on Feb 29, 2024

  • 10.7857/JSGE.2024.29.1.028
  • Received on Jan 12, 2024
  • Revised on Jan 15, 2024
  • Accepted on Jan 24, 2024

Correspondence to

  • Bumhan Bae
  • Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea

  • E-mail: bhbae@gachon.ac.kr